Tilastotieteen Perusteet (Introduction to Statistics)
Note: Outdated version from 2019 (new version under construction)

Code: STAT.1030

Credit units: 5 ECTS credits

Teacher: Lecturer Bernd Pape

Teaching: 36h Lectures and 18h Exercises.

Language of Instruction: Finnish (Lectures, Exercises and Exams)

Course objective: Provide the student with sufficient skills to apply statistical presentation methods. Introduce the student to descriptive statistics, probability calculus, and hypothesis testing.

Contents: Descriptive Statistics, Probability Calculus, Correlation and Regression, Sampling Methods, Statistical Inference.

Schedule for the Lectures: Weeks 36-42, 44-45, see Lukkari.
First lecture on Tuesday, September 4th, 10.15h in Levon (A202)

Schedule for the Exercise Groups: Weeks 37-42, 44-46, see Lukkari.

Week 36: General Introduction and Mathematical Tools
Week 37: Data and Measurement, Frequency Distributions and Grouping, Graphical Presentation, 5-Number Summary
Week 38: Measures of Location, Variability and Shape, Empirical Rule and Chebyshev's Theorem
Week 39: Contingency Tables, Linear Correlation, Rank Correlation
Week 40: Linear Regression, Combinatorics, Definition of Probability
Week 41: Properties of Probability, Conditional Probabilities and Independence, Random Variables
Week 42: Statistics of Random Variables, Discrete and Continuous Probability Distributions, Central Limit Theorem
Week 43: Interim Exam about Describtive Statistics (all topics before Combinatorics)
Week 44: Sampling Methods and Sampling Distributions, Point and Interval Estimation
Week 45: Hypothesis Testing

Schedule for the Exams:
Thursday, 24.10.2019 14-17h: 1st midterm exam (voluntary).
Saturday, 07.12.2019, 12-15h: final exam.
Saturday, 18.01.2020, 12-15h: 1st retake of final exam.
Saturday, 29.02.2019, 12-15h: 2nd retake of final exam.
All exams and retakes including the 1st midterm exam require registration in WebOodi. The points obtained in the 1st midterm exam about descriptive statistics are only valid for the first final exam. If you fail that exam or don't show up, you'll have to redo the questions about descriptive statistics in the final exam and/or retakes.

Requirements for the credit units: Active Participation in the exercise groups and exam (Mid term + final exam or retakes). I will not grade your exam if you haven't participated actively in at least 7 of the nine exercise sessions. Active participation means that you show up on time and have at least one of the assignments of that week prepared for presentation in class. You must register in advance, which exercise(s) you plan to present in class (see below). The solution you present need not be correct, but there must be no doubt that you made a serious effort of solving that exercise on your own. Solutions read up from electronic devices are not acceptable. Please bring a photo-ID (eg. student card) with you to confirm your identy. Sessions from earlier academic years cannot be transferred to count for this year.

Registration of the compulsory exercises: You must indicate in advance which exercise you wish to present no later than Sunday 23.59h preceding the week when the corresponding session takes place by filling out this form.
Only preregistered exercises marked in this form by the respective deadline will count for the compulsory exercise sessions. Failure to present the exercise you marked as compulsory in that form will result in exclusion from the course. If all of a sudden it turns out that you cannot participate in a session you registered for (accident, sickness, etc.), drop me an email before the corresponding session takes place. If you inadvertently registered the wrong exercise(s) or for the wrong group, just redo the registration with the correct exercises/group without sending any emails. I will only consider the latest registration before the respective deadline.

Lecture Notes:
English slides to be used in the lectures and relevant for the exam:
Chap. 0-1: Mathematical Tools, Introduction
Chapter 2: Data and Measurement
Chap. 3.1-3.3.0: Grouping Data and Graphical Representation
Chapter 3.3.1: Measures of Location
Chap. 3.3.2-3: Measures of Variability and Shape
Chapter 4.1: Contingency Tables
Chap. 4.2-4: Correlation and Regression
Chap. 5.1-3: Combinatorics, Probability, Independence, Bayes
Chapter 6.1: Random Variables
Chapter 6.2: Discrete Probability Distributions
Chapter 6.3: Continuous Probability Distributions
Chapter 7: Data Collection
Chapter 8.1: Point Estimation, Confidence Intervals
Chapter 8.2: Hypothesis Testing
For the mostly corresponding lecture notes in Finnish by Christina Gustafsson click here. Plesae note that only the English version of the slides is relevant for the exam.

Statistical Formulas and Tables:
Click here for a collection of statistical formulas and tables by Christina Gustafsson, which may and should be brought to the exam.

Exercise Sheet 1 (week 37) (Mark your exercise no later than 8.9.)
Exercise Sheet 2 (week 38) (Mark your exercise no later than 15.9.)
Exercise Sheet 3 (week 39) (Mark your exercise no later than 22.9.)
Exercise Sheet 4 (week 40) (Mark your exercise no later than 29.9.)
Exercise Sheet 5 (week 41) (Mark your exercise no later than 6.10.)
Exercise Sheet 6 (week 42) (Mark your exercise no later than 13.10.)
Exercise Sheet 7 (week 44) (Mark your exercise no later than 27.10.)
Exercise Sheet 8 (week 45) (Mark your exercise no later than 3.11.)
Exercise Sheet 9 (week 46) (Mark your exercise no later than 10.11.)

Optional Additional Assignments: Click here.

Course literature:
Aczel, A.D.: Complete Business Statistics, McGraw-Hill;

Additional reading:
Moore/McCabe: Introduction to the Practice of Statistics, Freeman;
Moore/McCabe/Alwan/Craig: The Practice of Statistics for Business and Economics, Freeman;
Milton/Arnold: Introduction to Probability and Stochastics, McGraw-Hill;
Andy Field: Discovering Statistics Using SPSS, Sage;
Larry A. Pace: Statistical Analysis Using Excel 2007, Prentice Hall;
Matti Grönroos: Johdanto Tilastotieteeseen, Finn Lectura.

Why should you study statistics?
Because it will likely get you a better job.
See the links below found from Moore/McCabe/Alwan/Craig: The Practice of Statistics for Business and Economics.
The 25 Hottest Skills That Got People Hired in 2014
How to Get a Job at Google, Part 2

Translating Excel's Statistical Formulas into Finnish:
The lecture notes assume that the language in Excel is set to English (U.S.), as it is on campus. You may change the language settings of Excel under File => Options => Language. The names of the statistical functions change in case you use a different language. You may find the Finnish equivalent to the statistical functions from the lecture notes by using the links below:
Excelin funktiot suomeksi ja englanniksi
Excelin funktiot (luokittain)